Updated brain map reveals how we control our body’s movement

Updated brain map reveals how we control our body's movement

Human mind with highlighted precentral gyrus, location of motor cortex

Science Picture Library/Getty Photos

Our actions could also be managed by two completely different networks in our mind as a substitute of a single one.

For practically a century, we have recognized that the motor cortex—a comparatively skinny strip of tissue working throughout each hemispheres within the heart of the mind—controls our bodily actions.

Neuroscientists within the Thirties Wild Penfield And Edwin Boldrey electrically stimulated the brains of individuals present process mind surgical procedure, suggesting that completely different components of the first motor cortex management completely different components of the physique. Additionally they discovered that these management areas are organized in the identical order because the physique components they orientate, with the toes at one finish and the face on the different, as proven within the so-called homunculus map.

Evan Gordon His colleagues on the Washington College College of Medication in Missouri and his colleagues wished to make use of trendy know-how to additional look at the Penfield-Boldrey thought. So, they took high-resolution MRI scans of seven folks whereas they had been mendacity in a scanner observing a cross image for 12 to fifteen hours.

Analyzing members’ brains once they’re largely nonetheless and never engaged in a activity like studying signifies that mind exercise knowledge is much less complicated, permitting researchers to higher observe which components of the mind are working collectively, Gordon says.

Penfield-Boldrey analysis means that the first motor cortex consists solely of the homunculus map. However Gordon and his staff discovered that the cortex additionally has three areas interspersed throughout the map that appear to work collectively to coordinate actions towards the middle of the physique, such because the shoulders and stomach.

Subsequent, the researchers rescanned the brains of two members who carried out 25 actions corresponding to blinking and swallowing whereas mendacity down in an MRI scanner.

These scans typically assist the knowledge summarized within the homunculus map. In easy phrases, they present that one space of ​​the first motor cortex is related to actions within the decrease physique, one with hand actions involving the shoulders, and one other with facial actions. This corresponds to what Penfield and Boldrey describe and creates certainly one of two separate networks in our mind that management motion.

Homunculus map showing how different parts of the motor cortex control movement in different parts of the body

Homunculus map exhibiting how completely different components of the motor cortex management motion in several components of the physique

Historical past of Science Footage/Alamy

From the scans of those two members, the researchers confirmed in better element the areas between areas on the homunculus map, and these areas turned notably energetic once they moved their midsections.

The researchers named these intermediate areas the somato-cognitive motion community (SCAN), which kinds our mind’s second separate community.

They then regarded for indicators of SCAN in mind exercise knowledge from scans from a number of main databases, such because the Human Connectome Undertaking and UK Biobank, and located that it seemed to be current in all of the samples they analyzed.

Gordon says the SCAN community works along with the primary community within the major motor cortex, which controls actions associated to the palms, ft, and mouth. Actions to different components of our physique, corresponding to our hips or again, could also be managed by different areas of the motor cortex, he says.

In one other a part of the experiment, the researchers scanned the brains of three newborns, 11-month-olds and 9-year-olds to see if they’d SCAN.

Whereas he didn’t see the mesh within the new child, he was 11 months and 9 years outdated, suggesting that it developed because the child grew. “An 11-month-old child can transfer his legs and arms on objective,” says Gordon. “Whereas a new child has little management over their physique actions.”

The staff wonders if SCAN may very well be concerned in circumstances corresponding to Parkinson’s illness, which impacts motion and causes signs corresponding to tremors. Gordon says that whereas extra analysis is required, SCAN may very well be a therapy goal for Parkinson’s illness and different movement-related circumstances corresponding to ataxia.

“This solutions the long-standing neuroscientific query in neuroscience, how neurons are within the mind. [the] it makes use of the motor cortex to manage motion,” he says. Patrick Haggard at College Faculty London. To substantiate these outcomes, he says it could be useful to report SCAN neurons in experiments the place people or different animals can transfer freely, not restricted to a scanner.

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